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Saturday, January 19, 2019 09:00 AM




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News-01:2019 Western Region Roundup

Redesign the Fleet

US Navy sub commander demoted after hiring prostitutes in Philippines

Russia’s Newest Yasen-Class Attack Submarines Are the Equal of America's Subs

Come Take a Tour of America's Newest Nuclear Submarine

The future of China’s nuke missile subs: How worried should America be?

NEWS-01: 2019 Western Region Roundup

The annual Western Region Roundup will be held at Don Laughlin's Resort and Casino from March 25 through March 29, 2019. Highlights include guest speakers Frank Hood, co-author of "Poopie Suits and Cowboy Boots"and Capt Dick Noreika, former Commanding Officer of USS Kamehameha and USS Michigan; a the Trident Refit Facility, Bangor WA. Book sales from "Poopie Suits and Cowboy Boots" will benefit the Charitable Foundation.

Laughlin has many activities in addition to reminiscing in the hospitality room or partaking in a game of chance in the casino. Visit the website for a listing of things to do and shows while there. Online registration is available through the website.

Questions? Call Gene E. Kellar: Phone: (303) 988-7661 or Email:


Redesign the Fleet

The U.S. Navy’s current fleet design does not match today’s conditions, much less those expected over the next 20 years. Today’s fleet—a mix of ship types that are simply evolutionary improvements and larger versions of designs from two or more decades ago—is too small, and the ships on average are too large. It is time for the Navy to make broad, significant changes in the fleet’s design.

The rapid rise of global connectedness—and the technological progress and proliferation that it has sparked—raises new challenges for designing a fleet with the capabilities required to execute its missions across the globe. The ability to detect warships at long ranges or even globally is no longer a U.S. monopoly. Commercial space sensors are burgeoning, and their data is available in the marketplace. Many nations have sophisticated military space programs, distributed networked sensor fields, and long-range unmanned aerial vehicles that can search far from shore. Sensor capability is advancing faster than the ability to elude detection. Long-range precision-guided weapons are proliferating and can be brought to bear in numbers against what these sensor systems detect. Weapon speed is increasing while weapon signature is decreasing.

The current fleet was not designed with this threat environment, where losses likely will be significant, in mind. The fleet concentrates too much capability in too few manned hulls that are too large. Not enough are forward deployed to provide sufficient firepower to achieve warfighting success. And the fleet is too expensive per unit to be able to afford enough capacity to meet global requirements and wartime resiliency.

As retired Navy Captain Wayne Hughes has taught for many years in his definitive books on fleet tactics, the Navy is making it too easy for an adversary to win with a devastating first salvo against a few large ships. A new fleet design is needed to address these vulnerabilities.

Trends That Drive Change

Multiple recent studies on future fleet design have consistently characterized the threat trends and challenges and defined required changes. The trends can be grouped into seven areas:

Affordability. Constrained defense funding will be an inevitable consequence of federal budget deficits. Fleet designs based on increasingly expensive ship designs will deliver steadily smaller fleet sizes in the presence of likely fiscal constraints. The cost of the Navy’s current 355-ship fleet design is “60 percent higher than the amounts the Navy has spent on shipbuilding over the last 30 years and more than 25 percent higher than the amount appropriated for 2017.” 3 This is not realistic.

Autonomy. Technology steadily increases the variety of missions that can be handled by unmanned elements of the fleet. Artificial intelligence that lets sensors send commanders concise, reliable reports and optimized tactical recommendations—rather than high-bandwidth sensor data requiring interpretation—will make unmanned systems ever more useful as integral elements of the fleet. This will give the fleet an edge in the battle for speed of action in combat and will limit the demand for connectivity to achievable levels.

Textron’s Common Unmanned Surface Vehicle can perform many different missions when staged from a well deck. Working with a variety of manned and unmanned ships and sensor systems, such a platform could become a primary component of future mine countermeasures systems. (Textron Systems)

Defense. U.S. forces will face an expanding inventory of weapons and increasingly pervasive sensor coverage that will require new approaches in defensive and deception capacity. The fleet must develop the ability to operate on a more dispersed basis without loss of combat effectiveness or survivability compared to aggregated-force operations. Ship defense must shift toward high-volume/high-lethality and more compact short-range systems to reduce the cost and magazine demands of big, long-range defensive missiles.

Offense. The range and lethality of threats will place a premium on initial offensive operations conducted with long-range missiles and unmanned systems rather than by manned platforms penetrating defended areas. The fleet must have the capability and weapon capacity to inflict immediate offensive punishment rather than playing defense while slowly aggregating a roll-back force. Weapon inventory capacity must be divorced from the size of manned warships by augmenting their magazines with weapons launched remotely from high-endurance unmanned “wingman” vessels.

Distribution. The growing risk to ships from precision weapons will require improved distribution of capability across the force. Each manned ship will need appropriate organic self-defense and offensive weapons, but none can have so large a fraction of total force capability that its loss would risk mission success. The longstanding trend of making each new class of ship larger and more expensive than its predecessor unduly concentrates capability and diminishes affordable capacity for geographic coverage. This must be reversed.

Connectivity. The need to disperse the fleet geographically while facing a growing threat to communication satellites and networks will demand over-the-horizon, secure, high-capacity data fusion and exchange networks among dispersed units. High-flying, long-endurance unmanned aircraft will have to provide organic broad-area sensor and communication support to and among dispersed forces.

Logistics. The far-forward nature of Navy operations and the requirement for greater dispersal will increase the demand for survivable sea-based logistics; fixed bases are vulnerable to precision attack. A distributed fleet will require enhanced capability to reload or augment magazines and the new capability to manufacture critical repair parts at sea.

Building Blocks of the Future Fleet

These trends and their implications must shape a new fleet. Its ships must be smaller on average to reduce strategic vulnerability and provide geographic coverage. While ships generally deliver capability more economically the larger they are, this presumes they will operate in a safe environment with total sea control. That assumption does not apply in overall force design, where there is significant risk of ship attrition. If every set of 96 vertical-launch missile cells must come with a $2 billion guided-missile destroyer wrapped around it, the price of delivering firepower capacity forward will be too high. Unmanned payload “trucks” working with smaller manned control hubs will reduce risk in contested waters.

The fleet must be as capable of conducting electromagnetic-spectrum warfare as it is of kinetic warfare. Those portions that will operate closest to threats must be unmanned, submersible, or both, and the manned platforms must be capable of directing the unmanned ones. Every ship should be capable of managing its own signature and employing offboard deception systems to limit adversary identification and targeting. 

A Navy designed to operate globally to deliver deterrence, sea control, and power projection must have ships drawn from a set of six fundamental building blocks. The types of platforms within each category, the capabilities hosted on them, the boundaries between them, the mix of manned and unmanned within them, and the operational concepts for employing them must change profoundly from today. Ship designs that are mere incremental improvements over today’s will not be adequate in either capability or capacity to fulfill the Navy’s core missions.

The categories of the six building blocks may sound familiar, but the actual ships and their missions must change from today’s fleet design:  Read All! ^


US Navy sub commander demoted after hiring prostitutes in Philippines

By Lukas Mikelionis | Fox News

Navy submarine commander was disciplined and demoted last summer after admitting to paying for female prostitutes while stationed in the Philippines.

Capt. Travis Zettel lost the confidence to command the attack submarine USS Bremerton and was relieved of duty back in August following the investigation.

The investigation by the U.S. Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) was launched following a sailor’s tip to the Department of Defense Inspector General’s hotline, saying Zettel told him he “requested/ordered ten girls to arrive at the hotel,” according to documents obtained by the Kitsap Sun.

The sailor later saw the commander with around 10 “provocatively dressed females outside the front door of the hotel.”

Another sailor also apparently enjoyed the company of women and was seen with three “local females holding onto his arm as he was wandering around” and greeting his fellow sailors.

“Becoming the 15th commanding officer of the now 35-year-old ‘American classic’ is a proud moment for me and my family,” Zettel said in 2016 after taking control of the sub.

Following the investigation, he was reassigned to the staff of Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor-based Submarine Squadron 19, Navy officials told the Kitsap Sun.

The incident occurred in March 2018, while being ported in Subic Bay in the Philippines. The criminal investigation began in May.

NCIS agents reportedly confronted Zettel with the allegations. He admitted “culpability in the payment of female accompaniment,” according to the documents released to the publication.

The second accused sailor was interviewed, but he “did not participate in prostitution.” He wasn’t disciplined.

Zettel became the commander of Bremerton, the Navy’s oldest submarine before its recent decommission, in August 2016.

“Becoming the 15th commanding officer of the now 35-year-old ‘American classic’ is a proud moment for me and my family,” Zettel said in 2016 after taking control of the sub.

Following the investigation, he was reassigned to the staff of Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor-based Submarine Squadron 19, Navy officials told the Kitsap Sun. ^

Go down this page for amusing comments:


Russia’s Newest Yasen-Class Attack Submarines Are the Equal of America's Subs



Russia has had a lot of wonder weapons in the news, from combat walkers to nuclear-powered cruise missiles. Many of these weapons verge on the ridiculous or are the product of propaganda, but some are legitimately concerning. One scenario that keeps Pentagon planners up at night: the threat of sea-launched cruise missiles, ferried halfway across the Atlantic by Russia’s new submarines, threading their way through American airspace to deliver their deadly nuclear warheads on unsuspecting targets. Welcome to the new Yasen-class submarines (SSGN'S).


One such project was the Project 855 nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine, or Yasen-class. The first ship in the class, Severodvinsk, was laid down in December 1993. Just three years later, Moscow halted construction due to a lack of funds with only a third of the hull completed. The submarine finally entered service in 2014 as Russia’s first truly modern nuclear attack submarine of the post-Cold War era.

Severodvinsk is a big submarine. She is approximately 393 feet long and displaces 11,800 tons submerged. An OK-650KPM pressurized-water nuclear reactor provides 200 megawatts of power, driving her to speeds up to 31 knots submerged. A Irtysh-Amfora sonar system provides near all-around sonar coverage, with a bow-mounted spherical sonar array, flank arrays on the hull of the submarine, and a towed sonar array dragged from the rear of the submarine while moving.......................


“The Severodvinsk is in many ways Russia’s equivalent to the US Navy’s Seawolf class,” Sutton explained, referring to the U.S. Navy’s large, deep diving attack submarines built during the late 1990s and early 2000s. “It’s an expensive top-of-the-range submarine conceived in the Cold War. The biggest difference is that the Russian boat has eight silos for cruise missiles in addition to what can be carried in the torpedo room. This feature has since been added to American attack submarines but they will never have the same weapon capacity.”


For now, the best hope the Yasen-class won’t be the major threat it could be is the state of the Russian economy. Although the Moscow is over the economic pain of the mid-2010s and in a gradual recovery, growth is slow and the Yasen class is extremely expensive. Russia, whose economy is smaller than Texas’, has only built two such submarines in twenty years. It has aspirations to build a total of eight.

At this rate, it could be a long time before there are enough Yasens to constitute a serious problem.

Read All ^



Come Take a Tour of America's Newest Nuclear Submarine
PCU South Dakota will join the U.S. Navy submarine force in February 2019.



The future of China’s nuke missile subs: How worried should America be?

July 8, 2016 1:46 PM (UTC+8) | by Lyle J. Goldstein

One of the challenges of analyzing Chinese defense and foreign policy for Western strategists is that China often behaves quite differently than conventional paradigms for strategy development would otherwise predict. For example, Beijing’s focus on sea power development has been parsed in rather excruciating detail for well over a decade, but Beijing still wields just one (almost) operational, conventional aircraft carrier and a single overseas “support point” in Djibouti. That location, adjacent to the bases of several Western powers including the United States, hardly suggests aggressive intentions.

But nowhere is China’s unique approach to military strategy as evident as in the nuclear strategy realm. It is true that Beijing’s initial restraint in creating its “minimal deterrent” during the 1960s and 1970s no doubt reflected severe resource constraints. However, there can be little doubt that if China sought a massive nuclear arsenal (on par with the United States and Russia), it could have it by now. Instead, as I have noted in this column previously, it has wisely invested in domestic transport infrastructure, such as its colossal high-speed rail network. Still, it is true that the PLA Second Artillery is now bringing online a series of new systems that will reinforce “assured destruction.” Of particular interest, is the continued development of the submarine-leg of the Chinese nuclear triad. This edition of Dragon Eye will discuss a rather detailed analysis of China’s evolving sea-based nuclear weapons written by the reasonably well-known Chinese nuclear strategist, Professor Wu Riqiang (吴日强) of Renmin University, in the naval magazine Modern Ships (现代舰船) published.  Read All ^


USS Croaker SS/SSK 246 75th Commissioning Anniversary

Posted Jan 9, 2019

Buffalo Base in Buffalo New York is fortunate enough to have the USS Croaker SS/SSK 246 as a museum ship located at the Buffalo Naval Park. November 22, 2018 marked the 30th anniversary of the Croakers arrival at the Naval Park.


April 21, 2019 marks the 75th anniversary of the Croaker’s commissioning. Due to both of these anniversary’s falling on holidays, Buffalo Base and the Buffalo Naval Park will be celebrating both events on Saturday April 27th. In preparation for that event, we are looking for any and all Submarine veterans who were qualified on the Croaker.


If any of your members qualified on the Croaker or know anyone who qualified on the Croaker, even if they are not a member of USSVI, we would like them to contact buffalo base at

We are trying to establish a roster and email list of all former members of the Croaker family. We would like to see as many former Croaker shipmates at this ceremony as can possibly attend. Any questions can be sent to the same email and will be answered to the best of my ability.

Please let me know if this can possible be sent out or who I need to contact.

Thanks for your help.

Fred "Fritz" Marazita Jr.
Buffalo Base Commander



CHICAGO — World War II African-American fighter pilot John Lyle, a Tuskegee Airman, is dead at age 98.

Lyle's wife, Eunice, says he died Saturday at his home on Chicago's South Side. He had been battling prostate cancer.

The members of the nation's first black fighter squadron won acclaim for their aerial prowess and bravery, despite a military that imposed segregation on its African American recruits while respecting the rights of German prisoners. In 2007, President George W. Bush and Congress bestowed the Congressional Gold Medal on members of the squadron.

Lyle, who named his plane "Natalie" after his first wife, was credited with shooting down a German Messerschmitt.

After the war, Lyle worked for the Chicago Park District and founded a tree-trimming company.

In addition to his wife, Lyle is survived by three step-children ^


Kurdish Forces: Two American ISIS Fighters Captured
7 Jan 2019 | Stars and Stripes | By Chad Garland

Kurdish-led forces battling Islamic State militants in Syria say they captured five foreign fighters, including an American who once sought to become an English teacher in the jihadi group's Iraqi capital.

The American, a Texan named Warren Christopher Clark, 34, was one of two reputed U.S. citizens captured in a counterterrorism raid near the Iraqi border, where U.S.-backed forces are continuing to battle a pocket of the terrorists, the Syrian Democratic Forces said in a release on Sunday.

The group of jihadis had been preparing to attack masses of civilians fleeing the area, the SDF said. Also captured were two Pakistani fighters and an Irish man.

Officials with Operation Inherent Resolve, the U.S.-led coalition against ISIS militants in Iraq and Syria, were aware of the SDF release, but could not confirm the information it contained, a spokesman said via email.

"The incident is under investigation," said Army Col. Scott Rawlinson, the spokesman.

While nearly all of the territory ISIS once claimed Syria has been liberated, and President Donald Trump has called for a withdrawal of Americans from the country in the coming months, the U.S. and its allies continue to battle a remaining pocket of fighters along the Middle Euphrates River Valley.

In Iraq, where the government declared victory over the group in late 2017, ISIS fighters have launched insurgent attacks, ambushes and kidnappings, and some officials have warned of a possible resurgence of the group, which has long drawn hundreds of foreign fighters to its ranks.

Clark, who has one glass eye, had sought a nonmilitary role with the group, according to researchers with George Washington University's Program on Extremism who, in a February report, named him as one of at least 64 Americans from 16 states who had traveled to Iraq and Syria since 2011 to join jihadi groups, mainly ISIS.    Read All 

That time a surfacing Russian sub slammed into an American spy submarine
Blake Stilwell Jan. 06, 2017 12:35PM EST | We ere the Mighty

A submarine surfacing can happen pretty fast. And pretty violently.

Even at its calmest and slowest pace, that's still almost 9,000 tons of titanium-hulled, nuclear-powered Russian sub coming at you at 8 miles per-hour.

In February 1992, the crew of the USS Baton Rouge was probably pretty surprised to find out their secret spy mission had been uncovered. How it was discovered was both surprising and entirely by accident, recounted in a paper from MIT's Defense and Arms Control Studies Program.

The Baton Rouge was assigned to monitor the Russian Navy near the port city of Murmansk. The Soviet Union fell just a few months prior, but the U.S. Navy was still very interested in what the nascent – but still formidable – former Soviet Navy was up to.

All was going well off the coast of Murmansk as the Baton Rouge conducted its mission silently and unnoticed, until the crew was rocked by an impact from outside the boat. A Russian Sierra I-class sub, the Kostroma, collided with Baton Rouge from below as the Russian sub was trying to surface.

The American's hull was scratched and had tears in its port ballast tank. The Kostroma's conning tower slammed into the American sub at 8 miles per-hour as the Russian moved to surface. Its sail was crushed from the impact.

Embarrassing? Yes. Deadly? Thankfully no. Both American and Russian subs get much bigger and much heavier the Sierra I-class Kostroma and the Los Angeles-class Baton Rouge. Both can carry nuclear-capable cruise missiles, but neither were equipped with those weapons at the time.

After ensuring neither submarine required assistance both returned to port for repairs. In 1995 the U.S. Congress determined that repairing the Baton Rouge would be too costly and the boat was decommissioned.

The Kostroma, however, returned to active service – with a kill marker, celebrating the defeat of the Baton Rouge. ^


Future Captains Must Be Tested
(See S. Antcliff, et al., pp. 77–79,
October 2018 - Proceedings Magazine)

I read “Future Captains Must Be Tested” with great interest and a bit of nostalgia. The authors, three submarine force prospective commanding officer (PCO) instructors, make some important points regarding the influence a commanding officer can wield to gain the most from his or her crew. They point out that only the captain can lead the skilled and trained individuals in the crew and make the whole better than the sum of the parts. They further emphasize that we must expect every unit to perform at peak effectiveness and that the commanding officer is key to that performance.

During a career in the submarine force, I saw many commanding officers. Some drove their crews; some led. Some were hands-on for every activity, while others stood back and monitored those given responsibility. Some of each method were highly successful—and some were not.

I am sure each author was a successful commanding officer. However, I suggest caution if the PCO instructors believe that they can evaluate those who will struggle based on observations in the highly structured PCO course or based on their own successful leadership.

The instructors can assess functional skills. They can assess the presence and tactical skills in the trainer or the control room. But there is no crew for the PCOs to lead. Trying to assess how a PCO will relate to, form, and lead a crew is a less precise evaluation—that cannot be done in the environment of the PCO course.

—CAPT William L. Hicks, USN (Ret.)

Has the United States Lost Command of the Sea?

The ability to move merchants and armies through the sea at will—and to prevent an opponent from moving theirs—typically is referred to as “command of the sea.” The United States’ decades-long command of the sea has enabled both rapid response to threats that arise in any part of the world and secure commerce that has grown the global economy. Even competitor nations have benefited from the relatively peaceful waters guaranteed by U.S. sea power.

In the 27 years since the fall of the Soviet Union, however, the global picture has changed. Rising economic powers developed their navies, defunct regimes transferred complex munitions to nonstate organizations, and near-instantaneous information exchange connected ideological demagogues with their sleeping armies. Nowhere is the global shift more evident than on the sea. The maritime commons increasingly are crowded and dangerous and beg an analysis of whether the United States still commands the sea.

Command of the Sea

Command of the sea is a two-part condition made up of global naval influence and local sea control. 1 Global naval influence in today’s world means having the global logistics and long-range warfare capability to provide a credible threat of offensive naval power (or deterrence) anywhere in the world. Local sea control means having the platforms and weapons—whether manned or unmanned, offensive or defensive, sea-based or land-based—to regulate access to a localized sea area.

The combination of global influence and local control allows a state to move commerce and military forces across the oceans, overcome challenges to its movement and interests, and block the movement and interests of its adversaries. While the means used to achieve global naval influence or local sea control may change over time, these two components are the indivisible metrics of command of the sea.

The United States has an unrivaled ability to move, supply, and sustain commerce and armies across the oceans, and it can marshal its capable fleet to block the movement and interests of most of its adversaries during conflict. It also retains the ability to perform hemispheric homeland defense against seaborne invasion and the post–World War II requirement of strategic nuclear deterrence. However, in maritime commons crowded by capable adversaries, U.S. movement and interests can be blocked. 

Unlike other navies in history, which have weathered limited challenges, the United States faces risks to its sea control in several vital areas across the globe. Although the United States mounts an array of non-military efforts to supplement its naval action, threats mutate, weapons proliferate, and command of the sea remains primarily a naval enterprise.

Simply put, there are not enough ships in the U.S. Navy to overcome all worldwide threats to sea control. Despite naval efforts to modernize and restructure, the United States relies on luck or good fortune to ensure that half a dozen legitimate challenges do not develop at once. If they did, it would rely on non-naval forms of national power to cope, because neither the Navy nor any other fleet on the planet could simultaneously defeat all the global threats to local sea control.  

The U.S. Navy thus is dethroned: Its tenuous hold on local sea control unseats its command of the sea.

An Uncommanded Sea

Although it has not been explicit, the Navy slowly has acknowledged its inability to command the sea alone. The first hint came in 2005 at the International Seapower Symposium, when Vice Admiral Mike Mullen introduced the “1,000-ship Navy”—a fleet-in-being comprising the U.S. and other navies partnering to improve maritime security. In the years since, other naval leaders have followed suit, advancing a collective or corporate command of the sea. 2 However, collective command may not be possible, and regional partners have resisted the concept.

Read All! ^


Russia's New Borei-Class Submarine: Armed with a New (And Deadly) Nuclear Missile and Super Stealth?

by Mark Episkopos

The Russian Navy is developing an advanced iteration of its Borei-class submarine line, called Borei II or Project 955A.


 The National Interest previously reported that the Russian Navy is developing an advanced iteration of its Borei-class submarine line, called Borei II or Project 955A. “The first is being launched this year and is expected to be commissioned next year. There are contracts out for five boats. There was talk of two more being built in the 2020s, but recently the head of naval procurement said that won't be happening,” said Dmitry Gorenburg, a senior research scientist specializing in Russian military affairs at the Center for Naval Analyses.


Little is known about the status of later entries into the series, commissioned through 2027 for a total of seven 955A submarines. However, more information concerning Russia’s armament plans for the first 955A submarine, Knyaz Vladimir , has come to light over the last year.

Russian state media have recently given an update on ongoing efforts to integrate the Bulava missile system with 955A-series vessels: "The leading Project 955A vessel Knyaz Vladimir will carry out preparatory fire with a Bulava on the Kura Range in Kamchatka at state testing in the fall of 2019,” a military insider source told the Russian TASS news agency

RSM-56 Bulava, NATO reporting name “Mace,” is a ballistic missile system developed for the Borei-class submarines. It boasts a maximum effective range of around 8,000 to 10,000 km, accompanied by a 550 kiloton (kT) nuclear warhead with a new, GLONASS-powered digital inertial navigation system.

Bulava is submarine-born variant of the Topol-M, widely regarded as the pinnacle of Russian missile engineering. It is meant to replace the aging R-39 Rif ballistic missiles found on Russia’s Typhoon-class submarines, armed with a significantly weaker 100 kT warhead and increasingly obsolete navigation technology.

Despite a tortured development process, the Russian military projects confidence that Bulava will become an integral plank of the Kremlin’s nuclear triad for decades to come.

Former colonel and military expert Viktor Bondarenko gave an optimistic forecast to Russian news: “the maritime launch of the “Bulava” ballistic indicates that the project will continue on a successful development path. This is a very powerful, serious weapon, that was born out of serious engineering agonies. And the more successful [test] launches, the more confidently the Russian navy will take on board this fearsome weapon, whose range approaches 10,000 km,” he said after Bulava’s successful 2017 test launch.

As of the time of writing, Project 955 and 955A submarines are both thought to carry sixteen Bulava missiles; early reports that the 955A-class will come with twenty-tube launchers and other launching mechanism improvements remain unconfirmed. With official Russian channels loath to comment on differences between these two Borei classes, it is unlikely but still unknown if the 955A will feature any combat efficacy changes beyond minor target acquisition improvements.

Knyaz Vladimir will be presented to Russia’s Northern Fleet in the Summer of 2019. As with the rest of the 955A-series, it will offer a host of iterative improvements over its 955 predecessor: new onboard electronics, updated communications systems, and revised crew living quarters. Most recently, the Director of the Kurchatov Institute R&D center Russian told Russian media that the Borei-class submarines will be twice as quiet as the U.S. Virginia-Class Submarine line. 


Air Force One: the Most Closely Guarded Secrets of the Presidential Aircraft

As Big as a House

When we think of air travel, we usually think of pretty cramped conditions - but Air Force One actually has very roomy interiors.

With three storeys and 4,000 square feet of interior floor space, according to Boeing's website, the Presidential plane houses a Conference/dining room, quarters for the president and the first lady, an office area for senior staff members, another office that converts into a medical facility when necessary, work and rest areas for the presidential staff, media representatives and Air Force crews, and two galleys that can provide 100 meals at one sitting.

Not too shabby!

How Far and How Fast?

Air Force One can reach a maximum speed of Mach 0.92; that's 630 mph (1,015 km/h) - almost the speed of sound.

Flying at an altitude of 35,000 feet and maintaining a cruising speed of Mach 0.84 (that's 575 mph, or 925 km/h) Air Force One is capable of reaching a distance 6,800 nautical miles (7,800 mi, 13,000 km) before it has to refuel.

7,800 miles is a little over a third of the way around the world - which means that effectively, Air Force One can get wherever it wants, whenever it wants - fast.

Mobile Nuclear Fortress

When we think of air travel, we usually think of pretty cramped conditions - but Air Force One actually has very roomy interiors.

With three stories and 4,000 square feet of interior floor space, according to Boeing's website, the Presidential plane houses a Conference/dining room, quarters for the president and the first lady, an office area for senior staff members, another office that converts into a medical facility when necessary, work and rest areas for the presidential staff, media representatives and Air Force crews, and two galleys that can provide 100 meals at one sitting.

Read All
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